Prognostic significance of the hepatopulmonary syndrome in patients with cirrhosis

Gastroenterology. 2003 Oct;125(4):1042-52. doi: 10.1016/s0016-5085(03)01207-1.


Background and aims: The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) has been defined by chronic liver disease, arterial deoxygenation, and widespread intrapulmonary vasodilation. Mortality of patients with HPS is considered to be high, but the effect of HPS on survival in patients with cirrhosis remains unclear.

Methods: A total of 111 patients with cirrhosis were studied prospectively by using transthoracic contrast echocardiography for detection of pulmonary vasodilation, blood gas analysis, and pulmonary function test. Twenty different clinical characteristics and survival times were noted.

Results: Twenty-seven patients (24%) had HPS. Their mortality was significantly higher (median survival, 10.6 months) compared with patients without HPS (40.8 mo, P < 0.05), even after adjusting for liver disease severity (2.9 vs. 14.7 months in Child-Pugh class C with [n = 15] and without HPS [n = 35, P < 0.05]; 35.3 vs. 44.5 months in Child-Pugh class B with [n = 7] and without HPS [n = 23, P = NS]), and exclusion of patients who underwent liver transplantation during follow-up (median survival 4.8 vs. 35.2 months, P = 0.005). Causes of death were mainly nonpulmonary and liver-related in the 19 patients with and the 35 patients without HPS who died. In multivariate analysis, HPS was an independent predictor of survival besides age, Child-Pugh class, and blood urea nitrogen. Mortality correlates with severity of HPS.

Conclusions: The presence of HPS independently worsens prognosis of patients with cirrhosis. This should influence patient management and scoring systems and accelerate the evaluation process for liver transplantation.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Algorithms
  • Blood Gas Analysis
  • Cause of Death
  • Echocardiography
  • Female
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / diagnostic imaging*
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / mortality*
  • Humans
  • Liver Cirrhosis / mortality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pulmonary Circulation
  • Respiratory Function Tests
  • Survival Rate
  • Vasodilation