Updated review of the global carotid artery stent registry

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2003 Oct;60(2):259-66. doi: 10.1002/ccd.10645.


The purpose of this article was to review and update the current status of carotid artery stent placement in the world. Surveys of major interventional centers in Europe, North and South America, and Asia were initially completed in June 1997. Subsequent updates from these 24 centers in addition to 29 new centers have been obtained to bring up to date the information. The survey asked the various questions regarding the patients enrolled, procedure techniques, and results of carotid stenting, including complications and restenosis. The total number of endovascular carotid stent procedures that have been performed worldwide to date included 12392 procedures involving 11243 patients. There was a technical success of 98.9% with 12254 carotid arteries treated. Complications that occurred during the carotid stent placement or within a 30-day period following placement were recorded. Overall, there was transient ischemic attack rate of 3.07%, minor strokes of 2.14%, major strokes of 1.20%, and procedure-related deaths of 0.64%. The combined minor and major strokes and procedure-related death rate was 3.98% based on procedure number. With nonprocedure-related death rate of 0.77%, the total stroke and death rate was 4.75%. Subsets of questions were directed at the new use of distal embolic protection devices; there were 6753 cases done without protection and which incurred a 5.29% rate of strokes and procedure-related deaths. In the 4221 cases with cerebral protection, there was a 2.23% rate of strokes and procedure-related deaths. Restenosis rates of carotid stenting have been 2.7%, 2.6%, and 2.4% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. The rate of neurologic events after stent placement has been 1.2%, 1.3%, and 1.7% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Endovascular stent treatment of carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is growing as an alternative for vascular surgery, especially for patients who are high risk for standard carotid endarterectomy. The periprocedure risks for major and minor strokes and death are generally acceptable at this early stage of development and have shown an improvement with technological developments, including distal embolic protection.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Americas / epidemiology
  • Asia / epidemiology
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation / adverse effects
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation / mortality
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation / trends
  • Carotid Artery Diseases / mortality
  • Carotid Artery Diseases / surgery*
  • Carotid Artery, Common / pathology*
  • Carotid Artery, Common / surgery*
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Safety
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Graft Occlusion, Vascular / etiology
  • Graft Occlusion, Vascular / mortality
  • Graft Occlusion, Vascular / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / etiology
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / mortality
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / prevention & control
  • Registries
  • Risk Reduction Behavior
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Stents* / adverse effects
  • Stents* / trends
  • Stroke / etiology
  • Stroke / mortality
  • Stroke / prevention & control
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome