Background: This study presents a comprehensive survey and characterization of available prostate carcinoma cell lines, most of which have been widely used but are incompletely characterized.
Methods: A total of 21 cell lines were investigated, including three "classical" (DU 145, LNCaP, and PC-3) and 18 "non-classical" lines (1013L, 22Rv1, ALVA-55, ALVA-101, ARCaP, CWR-R1, DuCaP, DuPro-1, LAPC-4, MDA PCa 1, MDA PCa 2a, MDA PCa 2b, NCI-H660, PC-346C, PC-93, PSK-1, UM-SCP-1, and VCaP). Cytogenetics, DNA profiling, expression of basal, luminal, and neuroendocrine differentiation markers, and mutation analyses of the TP53 and androgen receptor (AR) genes were performed.
Results: Based on cytogenetics and DNA profiling analyses, out of the 18 "non-classical" lines, six were confirmed to be unique, eight (in four pairs) were confirmed to be related in origin, and four lines were identified as cross-contaminants. Of this latter group, PC-93 was found to be a derivative of HeLa, whereas DuPro-1, ALVA-55, and ALVA-101 were derivatives of PC-3. The 17 genuine prostate cell lines expressed keratin 8 (K8) and K18. Nine showed AR expression, of which five harbored mutations in the AR gene. Prostate-specific antigen and DD3 were exclusively detected in AR expressing cell lines. Seven lines expressed the basal cell marker K5, three of these lines showed co-expression of AR.
Conclusions: This study defines a collection of 17 genuine prostate carcinoma cell lines. This collection, although small, constitutes a variety of different types and stages of prostate cancer, while it also partly reflects the heterogeneous nature of this malignancy.
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.