Feingold syndrome: clinical review and genetic mapping

Am J Med Genet A. 2003 Nov 1;122A(4):294-300. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.20471.


Feingold syndrome is characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance of microcephaly and limb malformations, notably hypoplastic thumbs, and clinodactyly of second and fifth fingers. Syndactyly frequently involves the second and third, as well as the fourth and fifth toes. Approximately one in three Feingold syndrome patients have esophageal or duodenal atresia or both. Anal atresia has been reported in a single case. At least 79 patients in 25 families have been reported. The syndrome has autosomal dominant inheritance with full penetrance, and variable expressivity. Vertebral anomalies, cardiac malformations, and deafness have been noted in a minority of patients. Here, we report a patient with hydronephrosis of one kidney and cystic dysplasia of the other, necessitating nephrectomy. The overall pattern of malformations in Feingold syndrome shows considerable overlap with the VATER/VACTERL association. The gene for Feingold syndrome maps to 2p23-p24, but remains to be identified. Comparison of the pattern of anomalies that occurs in the Feingold syndrome in humans and malformations that are present in mice with mutations of genes in the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway suggest, that the elusive Feingold syndrome gene may involve this signaling pathway as well.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Mapping*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Humans
  • Limb Deformities, Congenital / genetics*
  • Limb Deformities, Congenital / physiopathology
  • Microcephaly / genetics*
  • Microcephaly / physiopathology
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / physiology


  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • SHH protein, human
  • Trans-Activators