Purpose: To analyze the appearance, incidence, and characteristics of retinal diseases in myopic patients after refractive surgery.
Methods: We studied retinal disease observed in 9,239 consecutive eyes (5,099 patients) after refractive surgery. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) was used to correct myopia in 5,936 eyes (3,184 patients, mean age 30.5 +/- 8.9 years); mean spherical equivalent refraction was -4.71 +/- 2.80 D. Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) was used to correct myopia in 3,009 eyes (1,734 patients, mean age 32.0 +/- 7.8 years); mean spherical equivalent refraction was -13.5 +/- 3.30 D. An anterior chamber phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) was implanted to correct myopia in 294 eyes (181 patients, mean age 32.6 +/- 7.3 yr) with a mean spherical equivalent refraction of -18.5 +/- 5.00 D.
Results: Retinal detachment occurred at a mean 53.6 +/- 41.4 months after PRK in 9 eyes (0.15%), 24.6 +/- 20.4 months after LASIK in 11 eyes (0.36%), and 20.5 +/- 17.4 months after anterior chamber PIOL implantation in 12 eyes (4.08%). Choroidal neovascularization occurred a mean 26 months after PRK in 1 eye (0.01%), mean 30.2 +/- 19.3 months after LASIK in 10 eyes (0.33%), and mean 49.0 +/- 33.5 months after PACL implantation in 7 eyes (2.38%). One patient developed a macular hole 12 months after LASIK and another patient developed a macular hemorrhage immediately after LASIK. Epiretinal membrane appeared in one patient 19 months after anterior chamber PIOL implantation.
Conclusion: There was no relationship between PRK for myopia and retinal disease. LASIK for correction of myopia was followed by a low incidence of retinal disease; additional study is necessary to assess the true impact of the suction ring in the myopic eye. Implantation of an anterior chamber PIOL to correct high myopia was followed by a low incidence of choroidal neovascularization, a high incidence of retinal detachment, similar to other intraocular interventions in highly myopic patients.