Objective: To evaluate findings for patients with carotid cavernous fistulae or dural arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) who underwent transvenous embolization via different transvenous approaches.
Methods: Retrospective analysis of data for 31 patients (age range, 17-81 yr; mean age, 59.3 yr) with carotid cavernous fistulae (n = 6) or dural AVFs (cavernous sinus [CS], n = 11; transverse/sigmoid sinus, n = 14) was performed. The AVFs were treated with coils via different transvenous approaches, in 56 procedures. Doppler ultrasonography and time-resolved, two-dimensional, magnetic resonance projection angiography were performed to confirm the treatment. The mean clinical follow-up period was 32.5 months.
Results: A total of 34 transvenous procedures were performed for 17 AVFs of the CS. Eleven patients with AVFs of the CS (63%) were cured with respect to clinical symptoms, and six patients experienced improvement (37%). The approach via the internal jugular vein and inferior petrosal sinus (n = 15) was possible in 60% of cases, with complete occlusion of the fistula in 78% of cases. With the approach via the facial vein (n = 8), there was a 50% success rate. The superior ophthalmic vein approach (n = 5) was associated with a high rate of technical success (100%), with a rate of complete fistula occlusion of 80%. We encountered complications, with transient morbidity, in four cases (23.5%). For 14 dural AVFs of the transverse/sigmoid sinus, 22 transvenous procedures were performed; 12 patients were cured (85.7%) and 2 experienced improvement (14.3%). The technical success rate was 86%, with complete occlusion in 42% of cases. Minor complications occurred in six cases (42.9%) but did not lead to permanent morbidity.
Conclusion: Transvenous treatment of CS and transverse/sigmoid sinus AVFs can be effective if all transvenous approaches, including combined surgical/endovascular approaches, are considered.