Trained interviewers visited 631 inner city households to determine community prevalence and predictors of antibiotic use. Infectious disease symptoms were reported in 911 (33.2%) of 2,743 household members in the previous 30 days: medical attention was sought by 441 (48.4%) of 911 persons, and 354 (8.9%) of 911 took antibiotics for symptoms. Reported symptoms were respiratory (68.9%(, gastrointestinal (15.3%(, fever (12.8%(, and skin infection (2.8%(. Medical attention was sought significantly more often among those with chronic illness, those born in the United States, and those with fever, runny nose, or skin infections (all p<0.05). Antibiotics were taken significantly more often among those with poor health, those who spent more time at home, and those with fever and respiratory symptoms. Interventions to promote judicious use of antibiotics must include clinicians and the public, and for the Hispanic population such interventions must also be culturally relevant and provided in Spanish.