Objective: This study was undertaken to compare preprandial and postprandial capillary glucose monitoring in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.
Study design: Sixty-one women with type 1 diabetes were randomly assigned at 16 weeks' gestation to preprandial or postprandial blood glucose monitoring using memory-based glucose reflectance meters throughout pregnancy. Serial measurements of hemoglobin A1c and fructosamine were obtained throughout pregnancy. Insulin, glucose, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were measured in cord blood at delivery. Neonatal anthropometric measures were performed within 72 hours of delivery
Results: Maternal age, parity, age of onset of diabetes, number of prior miscarriages, smoking status, social class, weight gain in pregnancy, and compliance with therapy were similar in the two groups. The postprandial monitoring group had a significantly reduced incidence of preeclampsia (3% vs 21%, P<.048), a greater success in achieving glycemic control targets (55% vs 30%, P<.001) and a smaller neonatal triceps skinfold thickness (4.5+/-0.9 vs 5.1+/-1.3, P=.05).
Conclusion: Postprandial capillary blood glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetic pregnancy may significantly reduce the incidence of preeclampsia and neonatal triceps skinfold thickness compared with preprandial monitoring.