This study examined the effects of increasing milk on bone and body composition responses to resistance training in adolescents. Twenty-eight boys (13 to 17 years of age) were randomly assigned to consume, in addition to their habitual diet, 3 servings/day of 1% fluid milk (n=14) or juice not fortified with calcium (n=14) while engaged in a 12-week resistance-training program. For all subjects combined, there were significant (P<or=.05) changes in height (+0.5%), sigmaseven skin folds (-7.7%), body mass (+2.6%), lean body mass (+5.1%), fat mass (-9.3%), whole-body bone mineral content (+3.6%), bone mineral density (+1.8%), and maximal strength in the squat (+43%) and bench press (+23%). Compared with juice, the milk group had a significantly greater increase in bone mineral density (0.014 vs 0.028 g/cm(2)). Increasing intake of milk in physically active adolescent boys may enhance bone health.