In this Phase I/II trial, the patient's peripheral blood dendritic cells were pulsed with an autologous tumour lysate of the glioma. Seven patients with glioblastoma and three patients with anaplastic glioma, ranging in age from 20 to 69 years, participated in this study. The mean numbers of vaccinations of tumour lysate-pulsed dendritic cells were 3.7 times intradermally close to a cervical lymph node, and 3.2 times intratumorally via an Ommaya reservoir. The percentage of CD56-positive cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes increased after immunisation. There were two minor responses and four no-change cases evaluated by radiological findings. Dendritic cell vaccination elicited T-cell-mediated antitumour activity, as evaluated by the ELISPOT assay after vaccination in two of five tested patients. Three patients showed delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity to the autologous tumour lysate, two of these had a minor clinical response, and two had an increased ELISPOT result. Intratumoral CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell infiltration was detected in two patients who underwent reoperation after vaccination. This study demonstrated the safety and antitumour effects of autologous tumour lysate-pulsed dendritic cell therapy for patients with malignant glioma.