Since publication of the initial ACCP position statement on CDTM by pharmacists in 1997, the public, government, and much of the health care community at large have come to better appreciate the growing complexity of providing effective and safe drug therapy in today's health care environment. Increased interest in the issues of cost and quality of drug use is evident in the increasing coverage of the issue in the lay press and professional literature. This represents real progress, as well as real opportunity, for pharmacists. It also heightens the potential for a better understanding of the vital role that pharmacists can play in addressing these concerns. The percentage of patients who take several drugs for chronic diseases will continue to increase. Based on current trends, the number of patients who lack adequate access to care, or who receive either suboptimal, inappropriate, or unnecessarily expensive drug therapy for their acute and chronic diseases, will increase. Even as financial and human resources are increasingly strained within the current health care system, costs will continue to rise unless changes are made. Fortunately, qualified pharmacists are prepared, capable, and willing to help address a significant portion of these challenges. The public, many health care providers, some legislators, and a few insurers now recognize that pharmacists, because of their education and training in drug therapy, are well positioned both to accept additional responsibility for patient care and to provide services that make a real difference in health care quality and outcomes. The health care programs administered by the U.S. Public Health Service, the armed forces, and the Veterans Health Administration, as well as 38 states, now support pharmacist participation in CDTM. Pharmacists, working in an interdisciplinary structure with physicians and other health care providers, have demonstrated that they can improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of drug therapy by providing CDTM. It is time to incorporate this valuable professional skill of the contemporary pharmacist as a core component of the delivery of health care services.