Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death among kidney transplant recipients. Anemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular complications among patients with chronic kidney disease, has not been well characterized in kidney transplant recipients. We performed a retrospective cohort study of the prevalence of and factors associated with anemia among 240 patients who underwent kidney transplantation at our institution. The mean hematocrit (Hct) rose from 33% at 1 month after transplantation to 40% at 12 months after transplantation. The proportion of patients with Hct < 36% was 76% at transplantation and 21% and 36%, 1 year and 4 years after transplantation, respectively. Six months after transplantation, women had higher likelihood (OR = 3.61) of Hct < 36%, while higher Hct at 3 months (OR = 0.67 for 1% higher Hct) and diabetes (OR = 0.14) were associated with a lower likelihood of Hct < 36%. Similar associations were seen 12 months after transplantation. Even among patients with Hct < 30%, only 36% had iron studies, 46% received iron supplementation and 40% received recombinant human erythropoietin. Awareness of factors associated with a lower Hct may prompt better anemia screening and management, potentially improving cardiovascular outcomes among kidney transplant recipients.