The preparation and readiness for voluntary movement: a high-field event-related fMRI study of the Bereitschafts-BOLD response

Neuroimage. 2003 Sep;20(1):404-12. doi: 10.1016/s1053-8119(03)00291-x.


Activity within motor areas of the cortex begins to increase 1 to 2 s prior to voluntary self-initiated movement (termed the Bereitschaftspotential or readiness potential). There has been much speculation and debate over the precise source of this early premovement activity as it is important for understanding the roles of higher order motor areas in the preparation and readiness for voluntary movement. In this study, we use high-field (3-T) event-related fMRI with high temporal sampling (partial brain volumes every 250 ms) to specifically examine hemodynamic response time courses during the preparation, readiness, and execution of purely self-initiated voluntary movement. Five right-handed healthy volunteers performed a rapid sequential finger-to-thumb movement performed at self-determined times (12-15 trials). Functional images for each trial were temporally aligned and the averaged time series for each subject was iteratively correlated with a canonical hemodynamic response function progressively shifted in time. This analysis method identified areas of activation without constraining hemodynamic response timing. All subjects showed activation within frontal mesial areas, including supplementary motor area (SMA) and cingulate motor areas, as well as activation in left primary sensorimotor areas. The time courses of hemodynamic responses showed a great deal of variability in shape and timing between subjects; however, four subjects clearly showed earlier relative hemodynamic responses within SMA/cingulate motor areas compared with left primary motor areas. These results provide further evidence that the SMA and cingulate motor areas are major contributors to early stage premovement activity and play an important role in the preparation and readiness for voluntary movement.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brain Chemistry / physiology*
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology
  • Evoked Potentials / physiology
  • Female
  • Fingers / physiology
  • Functional Laterality / physiology
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Male
  • Motor Cortex / physiology
  • Movement / physiology*
  • Oxygen / chemistry*


  • Oxygen