Human adenovirus type 35: nucleotide sequence and vector development

Gene Ther. 2003 Nov;10(23):1941-9. doi: 10.1038/


In this report, we describe the complete 34,794 base pair genomic sequence of the human adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35) Holden strain. The viral genome exhibits a compact organization similar to other adenoviral serotypes, with overlapping genes on both strands. In all, 47 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, including early (E1, 2, 3, 4) and late (L1, 2, 3, 4, 5) regions conserved among the adenoviridae family. In addition, 14 ORFs were identified that do not encode known adenoviral genes. Comparison of the predicted translational products of the conserved genes with those of other adenoviruses revealed that Ad35 has high homology to Ad7, Ad3, Ad21, Ad17, and simian Ads25. Based on the complete Ad35 DNA sequence, E3-, E1-, and E1/E3-deleted Ad35-based vector systems were developed. An HEK293-derived cell line was established for the propagation of the E1-deleted Ad35 vector, avoiding the emergence of replication-competent adenovirus. Moreover, production of the E1-deleted recombinant Ad35 vector was achieved by transient transduction of a plasmid encoding the Ad35 E1B gene in HEK293 cells. Testing showed that the Ad35-based vector efficiently infects both human and rhesus macaque dendritic cells. Our novel Ad35-based vectors and their corresponding packaging cell lines will provide a versatile and powerful system for DNA-based vaccine development and gene therapy applications.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenovirus E1 Proteins / genetics
  • Adenovirus E3 Proteins / genetics
  • Adenoviruses, Human / genetics*
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Dendritic Cells / virology
  • Gene Deletion
  • Genetic Engineering / methods*
  • Genetic Vectors / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Transduction, Genetic / methods
  • Virus Replication


  • Adenovirus E1 Proteins
  • Adenovirus E3 Proteins