Intercellular interactions in the mammalian olfactory nerve

J Comp Neurol. 2003 Nov 10;466(2):230-9. doi: 10.1002/cne.10872.


The small, unmyelinated axons of olfactory sensory neurons project to the olfactory bulb in densely packed fascicles, an arrangement conducive to axo-axonal interactions. We recently demonstrated ephaptic interactions between these axons in the olfactory nerve layer, the layer of the olfactory bulb in which the axon fascicles interweave and rearrange extensively. In the present study, we hypothesized that the axons, which express connexins, may have another mode of communication: gap junctions. Previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have failed to demonstrate such junctions. However, the definitive method for detecting gap junctions, freeze fracture, has not been used to examine the interaxonal connections of the olfactory nerve layer. Here, we apply a combined approach of TEM and freeze fracture to determine if gap junctions are present between the olfactory axons. Gap junctions involving olfactory axons were not found. However, by freeze fracture, P faces of both the axons and ensheathing cells (glia that surround the axon fascicles) contained distinctive linear arrays of particles, aligned along the small columns of extracellular space. In axons, few intramembranous particles were present outside of these arrays. Multi-helix proteins, including ion channels and connexin hemichannels, have been shown to be visible as particles by freeze fracture. This suggests that the proteins important for signal transmission are confined to the linear arrays. Such an arrangement would facilitate ephaptic transmission, calcium waves, current oscillations, and paracrine communication and may be important for olfactory neural code processing.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Axons / physiology
  • Axons / ultrastructure
  • Cell Communication* / physiology
  • Connexins / deficiency
  • Connexins / genetics
  • Extracellular Space* / physiology
  • Female
  • Gap Junctions / physiology
  • Gap Junctions / ultrastructure
  • Intercellular Junctions / physiology
  • Intercellular Junctions / ultrastructure*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Olfactory Nerve / physiology
  • Olfactory Nerve / ultrastructure*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Connexins
  • connexin 36