A critical examination of the recent literature on anxiety and depression in juvenile diabetes is presented. The objectives of this review are: (1) to determine the general association of psychological factors, especially anxiety and depression, with diabetes, (2) to examine the specific association of anxiety and depression with metabolic control, and (3) to propose methodological changes that are needed to advance future research in this field. The major conclusions of this review support the notion of a general association of psychological disorders with juvenile diabetes. However, while anxiety and depression appear to play an important and complex role in determining adaptation to the disease, their relationship to metabolic control does not yet appear clear. Additional prospective and controlled studies as well as multivariate models of chronic disease are now necessary to more fully understand the etiology and impact of these disorders in the adolescent population.