Comparison of the effect of glutamate receptor modulators in the 6 Hz and maximal electroshock seizure models

Epilepsy Res. 2003 Sep;56(1):17-26. doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2003.08.001.


Glutamatergic ionotropic and metabotropic receptor modulators have been shown to produce anticonvulsant activity in a number of animal seizure models, e.g. maximal electroshock (MES) and DBA/2 sensory-induced seizures. The 6 Hz model of partial seizures is an alternative low frequency, long duration stimulation paradigm resulting in a seizure characterized by jaw and forelimb clonus, immobility, and an elevated tail (Straub-tail). A unique aspect of this model is that it is the only acute electrically-induced seizure model in which levetiracetam has displayed anticonvulsant activity, suggesting that the 6 Hz seizure model may be useful in identifying compounds with unique anticonvulsant profiles. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of glutamate receptors in the MES and 6 Hz seizure models using a number of NMDA, AMPA/KA, and mGlu receptor modulators. The pharmacological profile of the 6 Hz seizure model was compared to that of the MES model using eight ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and eight mGlu receptor modulators. The ionotropic receptor antagonists MK-801, LY235959, NBQX, LY293558, GYKI 52466, LY300168, and LY377770 produced complete protection from tonic extension in the MES model. Furthermore, the noncompetitive mGlu1 (LY456236) and mGlu5 (MPEP) metabotropic receptor antagonists and the mGlu8 metabotropic receptor agonist (PPG) were also effective in the MES model whereas the competitive mGlu1 (LY367385) receptor antagonist, the mGlu2/3 (LY379268 and LY389795) and Group III (L-AP4) metabotropic receptor agonists were ineffective. In contrast, all of the compounds tested, produced dose-dependent protection in the 6 Hz model with an increase in potency as compared to the MES model. The largest protective indices (P.I.=TD50/ED50) observed were associated with the iGlu5 antagonist LY382884 and the mGlu2/3 receptor agonists LY379268 and LY389795 (P.I.=>14, 14, and 4.9, respectively) in the 6 Hz model. The results from the present study support the continued search for glutamate receptor modulators as potential antiepileptic agents. Furthermore these results illustrate the importance of using several different animal seizure models in the search for novel AEDs and the potential utility of the 6 Hz seizure model in identifying novel AEDs.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Electroshock*
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Agents / agonists
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Agents / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Agents / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Receptors, Glutamate / metabolism*
  • Seizures / metabolism*
  • Seizures / prevention & control


  • Excitatory Amino Acid Agents
  • Receptors, Glutamate