Serum S-100B protein as a molecular marker in severe traumatic brain injury

Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2003;21(3-4):159-69.


Purpose: There is growing evidence that S-100B protein may be used as a novel biochemical marker of brain cell damage, measured by a simple blood test. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge about S-100B serum measurements in severe head injury and address actual controversies.

Methods: The material of the present analysis consists of a MEDLINE literature search for S-100 and severe head injury from 1966 to 2003. Studies of S-100B in severe head injury were reviewed for their information about the potential clinical value of this marker.

Results: A total of 18 clinical studies were identified and reviewed. Peak values of serum S-100B were demonstrated to have the highest correlation to any endpoint parameter. Admission values also have a significant correlation to injury severity and outcome but show a highly time dependent temporal course. There is extracranial release of S-100B in multitrauma patients in the first 48 hours, but the impact is limited as many studies have found a clear relationship between S-100B and injury severity, imaging findings and outcome.

Conclusion: S-100B belongs to a new generation of molecular serum markers of brain damage. These markers will have potential as a surrogate outcome marker or monitoring parameters for both clinical and experimental settings.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Brain Injuries / blood*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit
  • S100 Proteins / blood*
  • Time Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit
  • S100 Proteins