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, 38 (9), 923-30

Helicobacter Pylori, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Smoking in Risk Pattern of Gastroduodenal Ulcers

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Helicobacter Pylori, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Smoking in Risk Pattern of Gastroduodenal Ulcers

S J Konturek et al. Scand J Gastroenterol.

Abstract

Background: Helicobacter pylori, NSAID and cigarette smoking are major risk factors for gastroduodenal ulcers. However, the results of studies on the interaction between these factors on ulcerogenesis are controversial. This study was designed to examine the association between gastroduodenal ulcers and H. pylori infection, NSAID use, smoking and age.

Methods: 5967 dyspeptic patients underwent 13C-urea breath test (UBT) and upper endoscopy, while age and dyspeptic symptoms were reported.

Results: Out of 5967 patients, 31.8% were ulcerated; 9.2% had gastric, 17.2% duodenal and 5.4% both gastric and duodenal ulcers. H. pylori was found in 72.5% of gastric ulcer patients, in 83.6% of duodenal ulcer patients, in 76.9% of gastroduodenal ulcer patients and in 64.8% of dyspeptic patients. The gastric, duodenal and gastroduodenal ulcers were related to H. pylori significantly and the respective ORs were: 1.44, 2.77 and 1.81. NSAID alone was used by 6.2%-12.7% of ulcer patients, tending to raise only the risk of gastric ulcer but reducing that of duodenal and gastroduodenal ulcers. The H. pylori prevalence was significantly higher in smokers (76%) than in non-smokers (67%) and the ulcer risk was also significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. About 20% of ulcers were 'idiopathic', i.e. without NSAID and H. pylori and the ratio of these ulcers to all ulcers significantly increased during the 5 years of the study.

Conclusions: Based on multivariable logistic regression analysis we conclude that: 1) H. pylori infection, NSAID use, smoking and age play major roles in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcerations; 2) there is a negative interaction between H. pylori and NSAID on duodenal ulcers, suggesting that H. pylori reduces the development of these ulcers in NSAID users, and 3) about 20% of peptic ulcers in the Polish population are unrelated to H. pylori and NSAID use (idiopathic ulcers).

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