Vasopressin regulates water and solute transport in the renal collecting duct. In addition to short-term regulation of aquaporin-2 trafficking, vasopressin also has long-term effects to regulate the abundances of aquaporins-2 and -3 and beta- and gamma-subunits of the epithelial sodium channel in collecting duct principal cells. To investigate further the direct and indirect long-term regulatory actions of vasopressin in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), we used a proteomic approach [difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled with MALDI-TOF identification of differentially expressed protein spots]. DDAVP or vehicle was infused subcutaneously in Brattleboro rats for 3 days, and IMCD cells were purified from the inner medullas for proteomic analysis. Forty-three proteins were found to be regulated in response to vasopressin infusion, including 18 that were increased in abundance, 22 that were decreased, and 3 that were shifted in the gel, presumably because of posttranslational modification. Immunocytochemistry confirmed collecting duct expression of several of the proteins that were identified. Immunoblot analysis of nine of the proteins confirmed the changes seen by the DIGE method. Of these nine proteins, six were increased in response to DDAVP infusion: nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2), GRP78, heat shock protein-70, annexin II, glutaminase, and cathepsin D. The remaining three were decreased in response to DDAVP: aldehyde reductase I, adenylyl cyclase VI, and carbonic anhydrase II. The findings point to a role for vasopressin in the coordinate regulation of several determinants of nitric oxide levels (NOS2, arginase II, NADPH oxidase) and of proteins potentially involved in vasopressin escape (adenylyl cyclase VI and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4).