Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phospho-diesterase-I enzyme (E-NPP), one of the type II transmembrane proteins, cleaves phosphodiester and phosphosulfate bonds of a variety of substrates including deoxynucleotides, NAD, and nucleotide sugars. Mammalian E-NPP consists of three closely related family proteins; E-NPP1 (PC-1), E-NPP2 (PDNP2/PD-Ialpha/autotaxin), and E-NPP3 (CD203c/PDNP3/PD-Ibeta/B10/gp130RB13-6) that express in different cells or at different locations even in the same cell. E-NPP3 is associated with malignant subversion and invasive properties. In this study, the expression and localization of E-NPP3 were investigated in human colon carcinoma. Western blotting showed strong E-NPP3 expression in cancer tissues and in the serum of colon carcinoma patients. Immunohistochemically, E-NPP3 was expressed not only in the apical but also in the basolateral plasma membranes of cancer cells. No prominent pattern of intracellular localization, and no relation between clinical stage and E-NPP3 expression were observed. Our results suggested that E-NPP3 is associated with carcinogenesis of human colon cancer and that serum E-NPP3 might be a tumor marker of colon carcinoma.