Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can non-invasively examine the molecular diffusion of water in vivo and directly reflects the anatomical integrity of neural fibers in white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA) can be calculated from DTI data, and utilized to evaluate white matter integrity. DTI was performed on 30 patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy controls, and their FA values were subsequently measured in multiple brain regions. Statistical analyses revealed that FA values were decreased in the anterior cingulum of schizophrenia subjects. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in any other regions. This study supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal white matter integrity of the anterior cingulum.