The anterior-posterior axis of Drosophila becomes polarized early in oogenesis, when the oocyte moves to the posterior of the germline cyst because it preferentially adheres to posterior follicle cells. The source of this asymmetry is unclear, however, since anterior and posterior follicle cells are equivalent until midoogenesis, when Gurken signaling from the oocyte induces posterior fate. Here, we show that asymmetry arises because each cyst polarizes the next cyst through a series of posterior to anterior inductions. Delta signaling from the older cyst induces the anterior polar follicle cells, the anterior polar cells signal through the JAK/STAT pathway to induce the formation of the stalk between adjacent cysts, and the stalk polarizes the younger anterior cyst by inducing the shape change and preferential adhesion that position the oocyte at the posterior. The anterior-posterior axis is therefore established by a relay mechanism, which propagates polarity from one cyst to the next.