The field of gene therapy is rapidly expanding with a major focus on the treatment of cancer. Replication-defective adenoviruses are vectors of choice for delivering corrective genes into human cells. Major efforts are directed to design new generations of adenoviral vectors that feature reduced immunogenicity and improved targeting ability. However, the production of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy applications faces a number of challenges that limit the availability of high quality material at the early stages of research and development in the gene therapy field. Moreover, very few papers have been published on the subject and information on large-scale production methods are only available through specialized conference proceedings. This review outlines the problems associated with mass production of adenovirus vectors and describes research efforts by a number of groups who have contributed to optimize production methods. Better understanding of the adenovirus infection and replication kinetics as well as better understanding of complementing cell line physiology and metabolism greatly contributed to improving vector titers and volumetric productivity at higher cell densities. Also, the critical aspect of viral vector quantitation is discussed.