Newborn screening programs have enormous public health benefits and have been effective in identifying newborns who can benefit from early treatment. Because of advances in genetics and technology, newborn screening programs are capable of testing for more than 30 disorders, including infections, genetic diseases, and inherited and metabolic disorders. Many important issues surround the debate on universal screening, including financial resources, level of screening, continuity of care, and informed consent. To date, policy on newborn screening has been fragmented; however, efforts are underway to ensure uniformity and equity for all newborns. Obstetrician-gynecologists can continue to work to improve the health of their patients by informing expectant families of the newborn screening process.