A new approach to addressing difficult tissue reconstructive or replacement problems in the oral cavity is to engineer new tissue by using selective cell transplantation on polymer scaffolds. The current study characterized the osteoblastic nature of adherent mandibular cells on biomaterials, which could have a potential use as scaffolds for tissue engineering strategies. Cells of mandibular origin from one patient were cultivated on three different biomaterials (PepGen P-15 trade mark, Frios Algipore, and OsteoGraf/LD-700) for 7 and 14 days and osteocalcin expression was demonstrated by RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE/Western blotting. In order to explicitly characterize only the adherent cells on the biomaterials, we first separated the biomaterials with adherent cells from the culture plate before trypsinization. We could demonstrate that cell growth of adherent mandibular osteoblast-like cells was significantly higher on biomaterials with an organic component (PepGen P-15 trade mark ) in comparison to Frios Algipore and OsteoGraf/LD-700, respectively. In conclusion, only the explicit study of adherent cells at the gene and protein levels gives information about the osteoconductivity of biomaterials.