1. The roles of multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) 2 deficiency and Mrp3 up-regulation were evaluated on the metabolism and disposition of gemfibrozil. 2. Results from in vitro studies in microsomes showed that the hepatic intrinsic clearance (CLint) for the oxidative metabolism of gemfibrozil was slightly higher (1.5-fold) in male TR- rats, which are deficient in Mrp2, than in wild-type Wistar rats, whereas CLint for glucuronidation was similar in both strains. 3. The biliary excretion of intravenously administered [14C]gemfibrozil was significantly impaired in TR-) rats compared with Wistar rats (22 versus 93% of the dose excreted as the acyl glucuronides over 72 h). Additionally, the extent of urinary excretion of radioactivity was much higher in TR- than in Wistar rats (78 versus 2.6% of the dose). 4. There were complex time-dependent changes in the total radioactivity levels and metabolite profiles in plasma, liver and kidney, some of which appeared to be related to the up-regulation of Mrp3. 5. Overall, it was demonstrated that alterations in the expression of the transporters Mrp2 and Mrp3 significantly affected the excretion as well as the secondary metabolism and distribution of [14C]gemfibrozil.