The insulin/interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor (I4R) motif mediates the association of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 with the interleukin-4 (IL-4)Ralpha chain and transduces mitogenic signals in response to IL-4. Its physiological functions were analyzed in mice with a germline point mutation that changed the motif's effector tyrosine residue into phenylalanine (Y500F). The Y500F mutation abrogated IRS-2 phosphorylation and impaired IL-4-induced CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation but left unperturbed Stat6 activation, up-regulation of IL-4-responsive gene products, and Th cell differentiation under Th2 polarizing conditions. However, in vivo the Y500F mutation was associated with increased allergen-induced IgE production, airway responsiveness, tissue eosinophilia, and mucus production. These results define an important role for the I4R motif in regulating allergic inflammation.