We have recently shown that UDP-glucose, and some related UDP-sugars, are potent agonists of the novel G protein-coupled receptor GPR105 (recently re-named P2Y(14)). GPR105 is widely expressed throughout many brain regions and peripheral tissues of human and rodents, and couples to a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. To further characterise the role of GPR105, we demonstrate by immunohistochemistry with receptor-specific antiserum that GPR105 protein is widely distributed throughout the post mortem human brain where it is localised to glial cells, and specifically co-localises with astrocytes. Using quantitative RT-PCR we also show that GPR105 mRNA exhibits a restricted expression profile in an array of human cell lines and primary cells, with prominent expression detected in immune cells including neutrophils, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytic cells. To investigate the G protein selectivity of GPR105, we used chimeric Galpha subunits (Galpha(qi5), Galpha(qo5), and Galpha(qs5)) and an intracellular Ca(2+) mobilisation assay to demonstrate that GPR105 couples to Galpha subunits of the G(i/o) family but not to G(s) family proteins or to endogenous G(q/11) proteins in HEK-293 cells. Finally, we show that expression of GPR105 mRNA in the rat brain is up-regulated by immunologic challenge with lipopolysaccharide. Based on these observations, we propose that G(i/o)-coupled GPR105 might play an important role in peripheral and neuroimmune function in response to extracellular UDP-sugars.