Developmental potential of bovine androgenetic and parthenogenetic embryos: a comparative study

Biol Reprod. 2004 Feb;70(2):400-5. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.103.021972. Epub 2003 Oct 15.


In this study, we compared the developmental capacity of bovine haploid and diploid androgenetic and parthenogenetic embryos obtained by different methods. Androgenetic embryos were produced by piezo-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) of enucleated oocytes with or without subsequent pronuclear transfer from one haploid zygote to another. Parthenogenetic embryos were obtained by activation of matured oocytes by ionomycin combined with cycloheximide or 6-dimethylaminopurine (DMAP) treatment. Only few cleaved androgenetic haploid embryos were able to compact (2.7%) and to form blastocysts (1.8%), while significantly more haploid parthenogenotes underwent compaction (24-37%) and a minority developed to blastocysts at different rates, depending on the activation procedure (cycloheximide 3%, 6-DMAP 14.5%). By contrast, development to blastocyst of diploid androgenotes, cloned androgenetic embryos, and parthenogenotes (31%, 39%, and 43%, respectively) was similar to IVF control embryos (35%). Cell number on Day 7 was higher for IVF blastocysts and decreased in consecutive order in diploid androgenotes, diploid parthenogenotes, and haploid uniparental embryos. Following transfer of diploid androgenetic embryos, a pregnancy was established and maintained up to Day 28.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blastomeres / physiology
  • Cattle
  • Cell Nucleus / physiology
  • Diploidy
  • Embryo Transfer
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development / physiology*
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro
  • Haploidy
  • Male
  • Oocytes / physiology*
  • Parthenogenesis / physiology*
  • Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic