Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are common in hospitals and nursing homes. Because MRSA is resistant to all commonly prescribed beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins), these infections require treatment with alternative antimicrobial drugs. In addition, because antimicrobial drugs usually must be selected before identifying MRSA as the cause of infection, treatment presents a challenge for clinicians. MRSA has emerged recently as a more frequent cause of skin and soft tissue infections in the community, particularly in correctional facilities such as prisons, jails, and detention centers. This report summarizes recent investigations of MRSA transmission among inmates of correctional facilities in Georgia, California, and Texas. Inadequate personal hygiene, barriers to medical care, and other factors contributed to transmission. Information from these investigations has been used in the development of recently released Federal Bureau of Prisons guidance for control of MRSA, which recommends improvements in inmate hygiene, infection control, and targeted antimicrobial treatment.