Recurrent chromosome aberrations are frequently observed in human neoplastic cells and often correlate with other clinical and histopathological parameters of a given tumour type. The clinical presentation, histology and biology of many canine cancers closely parallels those of human malignancies. Since humans and dogs demonstrate extensive genome homology and share the same environment, it is expected that many canine cancers will also be associated with recurrent chromosome aberrations. To investigate this, we have performed molecular cytogenetic analyses on 25 cases of canine multicentric lymphoma. Comparative genomic hybridisation analysis demonstrated between one and 12 separate regions of chromosomal gain or loss within each case, involving 32 of the 38 canine autosomes. Genomic gains were almost twice as common as losses. Gain of dog chromosome (CFA) 13 was the most common aberration observed (12 of 25 cases), followed by gain of CFA 31 (eight cases) and loss of CFA 14 (five cases). Cytogenetic and histopathological data for each case are presented, and cytogenetic similarities with human non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are discussed. We have also assembled a panel of 41 canine chromosome-specific BAC probes that may be used for accurate and efficient chromosome identification in future studies of this nature.