We report on 2 newborn infants with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA + TEF) born to hyperthyroid mothers receiving methimazole (Tapazol) before and during their entire pregnancies. Both mothers were euthyroid during gestation and developed hydramnios diagnosed during weeks 34 and 33 of gestation. Premature delivery (36.2 weeks of gestation) occurred in one case, and both newborn infants were small for date with palpable goiter; one of them had other associated malformations. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed by laboratory tests in both cases. Corrective surgery was undertaken, but both newborn infants developed septicemia and renal insufficiency and died in the first week of life. The EA + TEF and a normally placed enlarged thyroid gland were confirmed at necropsy. These cases represent a previously unreported example of the association of maternal ingestion of methimazole during pregnancy and EA + TEF.