Bone mineral density of the spine and femur in early postmenopausal Turkish women with endemic skeletal fluorosis

Calcif Tissue Int. 2003 Jun;72(6):689-93. doi: 10.1007/s00223-002-2097-z.


The aim of this prospective, comparative study was to investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) changes in a group of early postmenopausal Turkish women with endemic skeletal fluorosis and to study effects of endemic fluorosis on BMD. Bone mineral density of L2-L4 vertebra, femur neck, femur trochanter, and Ward's triangle were measured in 45 female patients with endemic skeletal fluorosis and 41 age-matched controls by dual X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA). The BMD of L2-L4 vertebra and Ward's triangle were higher in the endemic fluorosis group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Patients with endemic fluorosis had higher femur neck and femur trochanter BMDs than did controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). There was a positive correlation between serum fluoride content and BMD at the spine (r = 0.345, P = 0.001), femoral neck (r = 0.274, P = 0.011), Ward's triangle (r = 0.295, P = 0.006), and trochanter (r = 0.217, P = 0.045). In conclusion, higher bone mineral density levels were seen in early postmenopausal women with endemic skeletal fluorosis. BMD measurement is a tool in the diagnosis and management of this preventable crippling disease.

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Bone Density*
  • Bone Diseases / etiology
  • Bone Diseases / metabolism*
  • Bone Diseases / pathology
  • Endemic Diseases
  • Female
  • Femur / diagnostic imaging
  • Femur / metabolism*
  • Fluoride Poisoning / blood*
  • Fluoride Poisoning / complications
  • Fluoride Poisoning / pathology
  • Fluorides / blood
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / metabolism*
  • Middle Aged
  • Postmenopause / physiology*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Turkey
  • Water Supply


  • Fluorides