The general basis of cancer is the loss of cell identity and inappropriate proliferation of cells. Classically, a universal paradigm in oncogenesis is the accumulation of mutations in the open reading frames of protein-encoding oncogenes and tumor suppressors. The identification of new classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNA) important for development and cell homeostasis will likely change this current paradigm. Recent data suggests that a special class of ncRNAs called microRNAs might be involved in human disease. This review proposes a role for microRNAs in oncogenesis.