JS-K, a novel non-ionic diazeniumdiolate derivative, inhibits Hep 3B hepatoma cell growth and induces c-Jun phosphorylation via multiple MAP kinase pathways

J Cell Physiol. 2003 Dec;197(3):426-34. doi: 10.1002/jcp.10380.


JS-K, a non-ionic diazeniumdiolate derivative, is capable of arylating nucleophiles and spontaneously generating nitric oxide (NO) at physiological pH. This recently synthesized low molecular weight compound is shown here to be an inhibitor of cell growth with concomitant activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members ERK, JNK, and p38 and their downstream effectors c-Jun and AP-1. Inhibitors of these MAPK pathways abrogated the growth inhibitory actions of JS-K. In addition to the well-described actions of JNK as a kinase for c-Jun, we show that c-Jun is also an ERK target. Furthermore, JS-K generated NO in culture and NO inhibitors antagonized both MAPK induction and the growth inhibitory effects of JS-K. These results suggest two possible mechanisms for the mediation of JS-K growth inhibitory actions, namely NO-induction of MAPK pathway constituents as well as possible arylation reactions. The data support the idea that prolonged MAPK activation by JS-K action is important in mediating its growth-inhibitory actions. JS-K thus represents a promising platform for novel growth inhibitory analog synthesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Apoptosis / physiology
  • Azo Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology
  • Cell Division / drug effects
  • Cell Division / physiology*
  • Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Liver Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 1
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System / drug effects
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System / physiology*
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / metabolism
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / drug effects
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide Donors / pharmacology*
  • Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • Piperazines / pharmacology*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / drug effects
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / drug effects
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / metabolism*
  • Transcription Factor AP-1 / drug effects
  • Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases


  • Azo Compounds
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Nitric Oxide Donors
  • O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-((4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate
  • Piperazines
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • diazeniumdiolate
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 1
  • MAP2K1 protein, human
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases