Cyclic AMP (cAMP) promotes functions of tight junctions in endothelial cells, although its target remains unknown. We showed here that cAMP increased gene expression of claudin-5 and decreased that of claudin-1 in porcine blood-brain-barrier endothelial cells via protein kinase A (PKA)-independent and -dependent pathways, respectively. cAMP also enhanced immunoreactivity of claudin-5 along cell borders and in the cytoplasm, reorganized actin filaments, and altered signals of claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1, and ZO-2 along cell boundaries from zipperlike to linear patterns. In contrast, claudin-1 was detected only in the cytoplasm in a dotlike pattern, and its immunolabeling was reduced by cAMP. Interestingly, 31- and 62-kDa claudin-5 immunoprecipitates in the NP-40-soluble and -insoluble fractions, respectively, were highly phosphorylated on threonine residue(s) upon cAMP treatment. All these changes induced by cAMP, except for claudin-5 expression and its signals in the cytoplasm, were reversed by an inhibitor of PKA, H-89. We also demonstrated that cAMP elevated the barrier function of tight junctions in porcine blood-brain-barrier endothelial cells in PKA-dependent and -independent manners. These findings indicate that both PKA-induced phosphorylation of claudin-5 immunoprecipitates and cAMP-dependent but PKA-independent induction of claudin-5 expression could be involved in promotion of tight-junction function in endothelial cells.