The glycation and oxidation of proteins/lipids leads to the generation of a new class of biologically active moieties, the advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Recent studies have elucidated that carboxymethyllysine (CML) adducts of proteins/lipids are a highly prevalent AGE in vivo. CML-modified adducts are signal transduction ligands of the receptor for AGE (RAGE), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Importantly, CML-modified adducts accumulate in diverse settings. In addition to enhanced formation in settings of high glucose, these adducts form in inflammatory milieu. Studies performed both in vitro and in vivo have suggested that the proinflammatory/tissue destructive consequences of RAGE activation in the diabetic/inflamed environment may be markedly attenuated by blockade of the ligand-RAGE axis. Here, we will summarize the known consequences of RAGE activation in the tissues and highlight novel areas for therapeutic intervention in these disease states.