Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate hemodynamic and cardiac stability during anesthesia induction and intubation, using propofol plus fentanyl, propofol plus ketamine, and propofol plus fentanyl and ketamine.
Methods: Forty-five adult patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups according to the agents used for induction: propofol (2 mg/kg) plus fentanyl (3 microg/kg) (PF), propofol (2 mg/kg) plus ketamine (0.1 mg/kg) (PK), and propofol (2 mg/kg) plus fentanyl (3 microg/kg) plus ketamine (0.1 mg/kg) (PFK). Hemodynamic responses were assessed by measuring changes in blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and cardiac output (CO; using dye dilution combined with pulse dye densitometry [PDD]).
Results: BP and HR changes during the induction of anesthesia tended to be greater in the PK group than in the PF and PFK groups. After the injection of propofol, the cardiac index (CI) fell significantly below baseline values in the PF and PFK groups, but remained unchanged in the PK group. After tracheal intubation, BP and HR increased significantly only in the PF and PK groups, and reached a level significantly above baseline values only in the PK group. The CO responses to tracheal intubation were: PK group > PF group > PFK group.
Conclusion: A combination of propofol plus fentanyl plus ketamine would provide greater reduction of fluctuations in hemodynamic variables associated with induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation than combinations of propofol plus fentanyl or propofol plus ketamine.