The relationship between neuropathy and Sjögren syndrome has been predicated largely on sicca symptoms or serological abnormalities rather than salivary gland pathology. We reviewed consecutive neuropathy patients who had had a lip biopsy to identify features of the neuropathy that were associated with a positive lip biopsy suggesting Sjögren syndrome. Twenty of 54 neuropathy patients were biopsy positive; 13 had a painful or nonspecific sensory neuropathy and only 4 were ataxic. Sicca symptoms were not associated with a positive biopsy (P = 0.14). Serological abnormalities were found more often in the biopsy-positive group (P = 0.008), but anti-Sjögren syndrome A or B (anti-SSA or SSB) antibodies were detected in only 30%. There were no other clinical or electromyographic (EMG) features associated with a positive biopsy. From this experience, we conclude that: (1). most patients with neuropathy and a positive lip biopsy for Sjögren syndrome have a painful, distal, sensory axonal neuropathy; (2). there are no clinical or EMG features that are predictive of a positive lip biopsy; (3). ataxic neuropathy is uncommon; and (4). the lack of sicca symptoms or anti-SSA or SSB antibodies in patients with neuropathy does not exclude Sjögren syndrome based upon salivary gland pathology.