This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, classification, and pathophysiology of mild head injury (MHI) in children. The difficulties associated with determination of MHI severity are outlined. Also, recently published research pertaining to pediatric MHI is reviewed. The recent research pertaining to MHI in children is generally consistent with the conclusions reached by the authors of the most recent comprehensive review, which reported that children who have suffered MHI often experience a symptomatic phase that could extend up to a few months, but these symptoms usually resolve. Numerous preinjury variables have been identified, including premorbid learning and behavior problems, disadvantaged socioeconomic status, premorbid neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and adverse family conditions, that appear to explain the persistence of some symptoms experienced by a subset of children with MHI. Directions for future research are provided.