The events of cell reproduction are governed by oscillations in the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). Cdks control the cell cycle by catalysing the transfer of phosphate from ATP to specific protein substrates. Despite their importance in cell-cycle control, few Cdk substrates have been identified. Here, we screened a budding yeast proteomic library for proteins that are directly phosphorylated by Cdk1 in whole-cell extracts. We identified about 200 Cdk1 substrates, several of which are phosphorylated in vivo in a Cdk1-dependent manner. The identities of these substrates reveal that Cdk1 employs a global regulatory strategy involving phosphorylation of other regulatory molecules as well as phosphorylation of the molecular machines that drive cell-cycle events. Detailed analysis of these substrates is likely to yield important insights into cell-cycle regulation.