Influenza A virus surveillance in wild birds in Northern Europe in 1999 and 2000

Avian Dis. 2003;47(3 Suppl):857-60. doi: 10.1637/0005-2086-47.s3.857.


Using reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we have screened more than 8500 wild birds in Northern Europe in 1999 and 2000 for the presence of influenza A virus. Although our primary focus was on ducks, geese, and shorebirds, we have also tested thousands of samples from other bird species. Approximately 1% of our samples were positive for influenza A virus by RT-PCR, and from half of these we were able to isolate influenza A virus in embryonated chicken eggs. A wide variety of isolates was obtained representing hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes 1 through 7, 10, 11, 13, an unidentifiable HA, and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes 1 through 8.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Wild
  • Birds / virology*
  • Chick Embryo / virology
  • Ducks
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Geese
  • Influenza A virus / classification
  • Influenza A virus / genetics
  • Influenza A virus / isolation & purification*
  • Influenza in Birds / epidemiology*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction