In the late 1990s, H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses caused respiratory infections in humans in Hong Kong. Exposure to domestic poultry in live-bird markets was significantly associated with human H5N1 disease. Seroepidemiologic studies conducted among contacts of H5N1-infected persons determined that human-to-human transmission of the avian H5N1 viruses occurred but was rare. The relatively high rates of H5 and H9 antibody seroprevalence among Hong Kong poultry workers in 1997 highlight the potential for avian viruses to transmit to humans, particularly those with occupational exposure. Such transmission increases the likelihood of reassortment between a currently circulating human virus and an avian virus and thus the creation of a strain with pandemic potential.