The outbreak of avian influenza H5N1 in Hong Kong in 1997 raised concerns about the potential for the H5 subtype to cause a human pandemic. In 2001 a new H5N1 virus, A/Duck Meat/Anyang/AVL-1/2001 (A/Dkmt), was isolated from imported duck meat in Korea. The pathogenesis of this virus was investigated in mice. A/Dkmt virus had low infectivity but was lethal for mice at high doses, and at lethal doses, the virus replicated in the brains of infected mice. A/Dkmt virus cross-reacted poorly with ferret antisera raised against human H5N1 viruses, but prior infection with A/Dkmt virus protected mice from death after secondary infection with human H5N1 virus.