From Baltimore to Bell Labs: reflections on two decades of debate about scientific misconduct

Account Res. 2003 Apr-Jun;10(2):123-35. doi: 10.1080/08989620300508.


This essay proposes a new definition of scientific "misconduct," which is broader than the definition recently adopted by the U.S. government. According to the proposed definition, misconduct is a serious and intentional violation of accepted scientific practices, commonsense ethical norms, or research regulations in proposing, designing, conducting, reviewing, or reporting research. Punishable misconduct includes fabrication of data or experiments, falsification of data, plagiarism, or interference with a misconduct investigation. Misconduct does not include honest errors, differences of opinion, or ethically questionable research practices.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Biomedical Research / ethics
  • Biomedical Research / history
  • Biomedical Research / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Ethics, Research
  • Federal Government
  • Fraud / history
  • Fraud / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Government Regulation
  • History, 20th Century
  • Humans
  • Plagiarism
  • Science / ethics
  • Science / history
  • Scientific Misconduct / classification*
  • Scientific Misconduct / history
  • Scientific Misconduct / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Social Control, Formal
  • Terminology as Topic
  • United States
  • United States Public Health Service