In 55 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the authors determined daily renal and dialysate clearances of urea nitrogen (CUN) and creatinine (CCr). Results are expressed as weekly CUN in liters (Kt) divided by liters of total body water determined from a nomogram (V). The authors calculated weekly CCr as the weekly dialysis clearance plus the average of renal CUN and CCr (to correct for creatinine secretion); they normalized total weekly CCr to 1.73 m2 body surface area. Mean weekly Kt/V and CCr were 2.1 and 65.2, respectively. Mean dietary protein intake by dietary survey was 0.85 g/kg body weight. Protein catabolic rate (PCR) calculated from urea kinetics was 0.94 g/kg standardized weight (V/0.58); PCR was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with Kt/V (r = 0.53). The authors used linear regression to determine PCR, as follows: PCR = 0.80 [weekly Kt/V]/3 + 0.39. This slope is nearly 1.5 times that reported for the relationship of PCR to [weekly Kt/V]/3 in hemodialysis patients. Eighty-two percent of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis had more than the targeted minimum weekly Kt/V of 1.7, 71% had a weekly CCr more than the targeted minimum of 50, and 75% had a PCR > 0.8 g/kg/day. In support of the hypothesis that Kt/V requirements are related to peak concentration control rather than to time averaged blood urea nitrogen, patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis have a higher PCR at given Kt/V values compared to hemodialysis patients. These patients are more likely to have a PCR > 0.8 if weekly Kt/V > 1.7.