Purpose: To determine the changes in stability as a reflection of early healing around single-stage, roughened-surface implants in humans utilizing resonance frequency analysis (RFA). RFA makes use of a transducer, attached to an implant, which is excited over a range of sound frequencies with subsequent response analysis.
Materials and methods: Twenty patients had 1 to 4 implants placed in the posterior maxilla or mandible. Bone type was classified into 1 of 4 groups according to the Lekholm and Zarb index (1985). RFA was used for direct measurement of implant stability on the day of implant placement and consecutively once per week for 6 weeks and at weeks 8 and 10.
Results: Twenty-seven ITI SLA implants placed in the premolar and molar regions of the maxilla and mandible were evaluated. Early failure occurred with 1 implant related to parafunction. The remaining 26 implants were distributed as follows: 29.6% in Type 1 bone, 37% in Type 2 or 3 bone, and 33.3% in Type 4 bone. The lowest mean stability measurement was at 3 weeks for all bone types. The percentage decrease in stability from baseline to 3 weeks was highest for Type 4 bone (8.6%), as was the percentage increase in stability from 3 to 10 weeks (26.9%). A Bonferroni adjusted Student t test comparison of bone groups at each time point revealed highly significant differences between implant stability in Types 1 and 4 bone at 3 weeks (P = .004) and a moderately significant difference between Types 2, 3, and 4 bone (P = .08) at 3 weeks. Implant stability did not change significantly during the 10-week period in Type 1 bone (P > .10). With the same test, by 5 weeks, no bone groups showed any difference in implant RFA measurements (P = 1.0).
Discussion: This study demonstrated the lowest values for implant stability at 3 weeks after placement for all bone types. This effect was statistically significant and most pronounced in Type 4 bone.
Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the pattern of stability changes among different bone types after 5 weeks of healing.