Complementary DNA microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used as tools for discovering genes that are differentially expressed in the mouse under normal physiological conditions at distinctive stages of male germ cell development, that is, type A spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids. By using this strategy, we identified a set of genes exhibiting differential expression patterns in spermatogenesis, suggesting that specific functions of the encoded products occurred during the developmental process. Among them were several genes previously not known to be active in testis, which signified undiscovered functional roles of these genes during spermatogenesis. Many of the genes identified were not previously characterized. This study highlights new targets for manipulation to unravel the molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis.