We investigated the effects of individual fatty acids on breast cancer in a prospective study of 35,298 Singapore Chinese women aged 45-74 years, who were enrolled during April 1993 to December 1998 (The Singapore Chinese Health Study). At recruitment, each study subject was administered, in-person, a validated, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire consisting of 165 food and beverage items. As of December 31, 2000, 314 incident cases of breast cancer had occurred. We used the Cox regression methods to examine individual fatty acids in relation to breast cancer risk, with adjustment for age at baseline interview, year of interview, dialect group, level of education, daily alcohol drinking, number of live births, age when menstrual periods became regular, and family history of breast cancer. Consumption of saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat overall was unrelated to risk. On the other hand, high levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish/shellfish (marine n-3 fatty acids) were significantly associated with reduced risk. Relative to the lowest quartile of intake, individuals in the higher three quartiles exhibited a 26% reduction in risk (relative risk (RR)=0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.58, 0.94)); RRs were similar across the top three quartiles of intake (0.75, 0.75, 0.72, respectively). Overall, there was no association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk. However, among subjects who consumed low levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (lowest quartile of intake), a statistically significant increase in risk was observed in individuals belonging to the highest vs the lowest quartile of n-6 fatty acid consumption (RR=1.87, 95% CI=1.06-3.27); the corresponding RR for advanced breast cancer was 2.45 (95% CI=1.20-4.97, P for trend=0.01). To our knowledge, these are the first prospective findings linking the intake of marine n-3 fatty acids to breast cancer protection.